## Selection functions and lenses

I’ve been wondering for several years how selection functions and lenses relate to each other, I felt intuitively that there should be some connection – and not just because they both show up in the foundations of game theory. Last night I came up with an answer, which isn’t a complete answer but looks like the starting point for a complete answer.

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## Open games with stateful payoffs

I’m starting to worry that my open games implementation is getting ahead of what I’ve written in papers in a few ways, and I should correct that with documentation blog posts. This one is about the module OpenGames.Engine.StatefulPayoffs, which is a pragmatic solution to a fundamental conceptual problem with open games: the identity of agents is not well-defined. Rather the fundamental unit is a decision, and if two decisions are made by the same agent then it is the user’s responsibility to make sure that those decisions have the same payoff, or at least game-theoretically “coherent” payoffs.

For a long time I thought this was a conceptual problem but not a practical one. But recent work with my collaborators Philipp Zahn, Seth Frey and Joshua Tan has stress-tested open games in new ways and revealed it to a problem after all. Specifically, if one agent makes 2 decisions on different sides of an abstraction boundary, then the programmer must explicitly design the boundary to accommodate that agent’s payoff. This feels like an abstraction leak.

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## Folklore: Monoidal kleisli categories

I’ve been threatening a few times recently to blog about bits of mathematical folklore that I use, i.e. important things that aren’t easy to find in the literature. I’m going to start with an easy one that won’t take me long to write.

Theorem: Given a commutative strong monad on a symmetric monoidal category, the kleisli category is symmetric monoidal in a canonical way.

(Recall that monads are not a good topic for your first blog post.)

I intend to bootstrap a blog by writing about 2 of my old papers, Monad Transformers for Backtracking Search and The Selection Monad as a CPS Transformation. (Wall Street will be spared for the time being.)

```import Control.Monad.Cont